Argentine Endemics

Birds do not recognize political boundaries, and their distribution ranges are typically related to specific habitat conditions or ecoregions. Argentina shares most of its ecoregions with neighboring countries, except for the Monte desert, which is where most of the Argentine endemic birds are found. For practical reasons and in order to avoid pointless political boundaries discussions, we quote in this section of our website birds that are endemic to continental Argentina (CAE) which includes aquatic coastal species, and birds endemic to the South West Atlantic ocean (SWAE) which are not found in the continental coast, but includes a couple of insular non aquatic exceptions.

Despite not being in the top of the rank of countries with the largest number of endemic birds, Argentina has an appreciable number of around 20 species (which varies depending on how widely accepted is the full species rank of some of them). The total number includes the following species:

  • South Georgia Diving-Petrel (SWAE)
  • White-headed Steamer-Duck (CAE)
  • Falkland Steamer-Duck (SWAE)
  • South Georgia Cormorant (SWAE)
  • Bare-eyed Ground Dove (CAE)
  • Buff-breasted Earthcreeper (CAE)
    considered by many authors conspecific with Plain-breasted Earthcreeper
  • White-browed Tapaculo (CAE)
  • Sandy Gallito (CAE)
  • Salinas Monjita (CAE)
  • Rusty-backed Monjita (CAE)
    with vagrant records in bordering countries
  • Cordoba Cinclodes (CAE)
  • Olrog's Cinclodes (CAE)
    considered by some authors conspecific with Gray-flanked Cinclodes
  • Blackish Cinclodes (SWAE)
    recently splitted from its Fuegian counterpart, now named "Black Cinclodes" (Cinclodes maculirostris)
  • Steinbach's Canastero (CAE)
  • Patagonian Canastero (CAE)
  • Cobb's Wren (SWAE)
  • South Georgia Pipit (SWAE)
  • Carbonated Sierra-Finch (CAE)
  • Monte Yellow-Finch (CAE)
    recent split of Greenish Yellow-Finch
  • Cinnamon Warbling-Finch (CAE)
    vagrant records in Uruguay
  • Yellow-striped Brush-Finch (CAE)

In addition, a species of Sporophila which was first only known for Argentina (although now we know it migrates to Paraguay and Brazil in winter, where records have already been reported) was recently described: "Ibera Seedeater".

But if we add the "almost endemic" birds (species that are mainly found in Argentina, despite some individuals or populations are found out of the country) the number increases drastically.

Beneath this group are the "breeding endemic" species, birds that breed only in Argentina, but reach other South American Cone countries in the non-breeding season. Examples of this group are:

  • Olrog’s Gull
  • Black-crowned Monjita
  • Hudson's Black-Tyrant
  • Lesser Shrike-Tyrant
Rusty-backed Monjita © Jorge La Grotteria

Other species have most of their distribution range in Argentina, being this country the best one to find them. That's the case for:

  • Yellow Cardinal
  • Hooded Grebe
  • Band-tailed Eremobius
  • Hudson's Canastero
  • Elegant Crested-Tinamou
  • Burrowing Parakeet
  • Tucuman Mountain-Finch
  • Red-faced Guan
  • Rufous-throated Dipper
  • Strange-tailed Tyrant

Finally, the rest of the "almost endemic" birds are species found in 2 or 3 countries at most and may be equally easy to see in either of them. Most of the times, these birds are endemic to an ecosystem that is only found within these countries. It's the case for most of the Atlantic Forest, Patagonian Forest, Pampas Grassland, Chaco Forest, Puna and other ecoregion's endemic birds, among them:

  • Horned Coot
  • Black-fronted Piping-Guan
  • Spot-billed Toucanet
  • Magellanic Woodpecker
  • Straight-billed Reedhaunter
  • White-bearded Antshrike
  • Spotted Bamboowren
  • Chucao Tapaculo
  • Red-backed Sierra-Finch
  • Pampas Meadowlark

And lots more…